The Joint Blog
By Will Hyde, Leafly.comHere’s a list of the top 5 best smelling marijuana strains in Washington State: #1 | Lemonder by Seattle’s Private Reserve
Lemonder from Seattle’s Private Reserve is a 91-point strain that was awarded the Best Aroma in Washington State using Leafly’s Cannabis Rating System. While somewhat wispy in appearance, it was the only qualifying strain that scored perfectly for its aroma. The strain is a hybrid of Super Lemon Haze, OG Kush, and Lavender, and it produces a sweet citrus aroma with the added pungent zest of fruit when ground up. Its flavor is a fruity, floral experience that reminds me of candied orange.Find Lemonder Nearby
From the Tasting Notebook:
“Lemon, cream, spice, and some middle savory note that is mellowing the lemon in an unexpected way.” –Jeremiah Wilhelm, Strain Researcher#2 | White Tahoe Cookies by Royal Tree Gardens
Royal Tree Gardens has a diverse mix of aromas and flavors coming from their flowering rooms. Their White Tahoe Cookies is a prime example of the quality and consistency their garden produces. A 94-point strain overall, White Tahoe Cookies’ aroma is a compelling mix of its parent genetics, The White, Tahoe OG, and an unspecified GSC cut. This flower has a grape and berry sweetness that blends with notes of musky mint, pine, and skunky earth to complete its enchanting bouquet.Find White Tahoe Cookies Nearby
From the Tasting Notebook:
“Robust grape and berry notes charged with a hint of dank, musky Kush and a sweet finish. Aromas of mint, eucalyptus, and pine forest erupt when this bud is broken down into shake.” –Will Hyde, Cannabis Expert#3 | Gummo by Gabriel Cannabis
Gummo from Gabriel Cannabis is an irresistible 92-point strain that crosses the sweetness of Bubble Gum with the intricate citrus aroma of Orange Bud. The tight buds covered in fiery orange hairs emit an intense citrus sour with soft floral sweetness. The flavor follows suit with a sharper, spiced finish reminiscent of cinnamon and sandalwood. The resulting effects are immediate, heady, and introspective.Find Gummo Nearby
From the Tasting Notebook:
“Loud, ripe berry aroma that expands into a sweet citrus medley of mandarin and tangerine.” –Bailey Rahn, Strains & Products Editor
Gummo grown by Gabriel Cannabis. #4 | Blueberry Pancakes by Nebula Gardens
A truly amazing flower with a captivating, nuanced, and unique terpene profile, Blueberry Pancakes from Nebula Gardens really does emulate its namesake: a mix of berry notes that finish with a creamy touch of citrus, evoking memories of fresh baked muffins. Scoring 89 points overall and near perfect for its aroma, Blueberry Pancakes provides soothing effects that pair nicely with its pungent essence.Find Blueberry Pancakes Nearby
From the Tasting Notebook:
“Bright strawberry, wildflower, and sweet pine with doughy vanilla. Its aroma feels clarifying with diverse nuance.”–Bailey Rahn, Strains & Products Editor#5 | Golden Ticket by Khush Kush
An 87-point strain overall, Golden Ticket from Khush Kush is a flower with fragrant fruity notes of citrus and subtle undertones of tropical flowers. The nuanced smells of Golden Ticket were just a couple points shy of a perfect aroma score. Its complex smell gives way to fresh pine and spearmint flavors with just a touch of sharp lime upon exhale.Find Golden Ticket Nearby
From the Tasting Notebook:
“Sweet, floral, and sort of tropical like a papaya . Reminds me of a Trainwreck cross. When I grind it up, the aroma is even sweeter like a sour green apple or an overripe pineapple .” –Will Hyde, Cannabis Expert
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For the study, researchers examined 79 adolescents ages 14 to 18, who were “classified as recent regular cannabis users (36) or light users (43).” Frequency and amount of substance use “were assessed across participants’ lifetime and during the past 30 days”, and motivation was measured “through the Apathy Evaluation Scale and Motivation and Engagement Scale.” To examine associations between cannabis use (CU) and motivation indices, researchers conducted a series of two-step hierarchical multiple regressions.
After controlling for confounds, “no significant differences were observed between regular and light users on any motivation index”, states the study. Similarly, “no associations between motivation and lifetime or past 30-day CU amount were observed”.
The study concludes by stating; “Our findings do not support a link between reduced motivation and CU among adolescents after controlling for relevant confounds.”
The full study, conducted by researchers at Florida International University, can be found by clicking here.
The post Study: Cannabis Use Does Not Reduce Motivation in Adolescents appeared first on TheJointBlog.
The legislation, filed by Senator Gerald Ortiz y Pino, would amend the New Mexico constitution by adding a new section that reads: “Possession and personal use of marijuana shall be lawful by persons twenty-one years of age or older only if the legislature provides by law for:
A. the production, processing, transportation, sale, taxation and acceptable quantities and places of use of marijuana to protect public health and safety; and
B. any state revenue generated from the taxation of marijuana to be distributed to the general fund.”
Section 2 of Senate Joint Resolution 4 reads: “The amendment proposed by this resolution shall be submitted to the people for their approval or rejection at the next general election or at any special election prior to that date that may be called for that purpose.”
In February, New Mexico’s House Consumer and Public Affairs Committee voted 3 to 1 to advance a measure to legalize recreational cannabis. Unfortunately the bill failed to advance further in the legislative process.
The post Marijuana Legalization Bill Filed in New Mexico Legislature appeared first on TheJointBlog.
Below is our list (the fifth annual) of the 10 most important cannabis studies of the year (in no particular order):
- Study: If Legal Nationwide, Medical Marijuana Would Prevent 23,500 to 47,500 Premature Deaths Each Year
A study published by Indiana University South Bend found that cannabis use is associated with decreased rates of mortality from obesity, diabetes mellitus, taumatic brain injury, use of alcohol and prescription drugs, driving fatalities, and opioid overdose deaths.
According to the study, there would be “an estimated 23,500 to 47,500 deaths prevented annually if medical marijuana were legal nationwide”, and cannabis prohibition “is revealed as a major cause of premature death in the U.S.”
The statewide legalization of medical marijuana is associated with a reduction in hospitalization from opioids, according to a study conducted at the University of California, and published by both the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependency and the National Institute of Health.
According to a study by BDS Analytics; “Cannabis consumers, it turns out, are among the most well-adjusted and successful of American adults, based on results from BDS Analytics’ landmark cannabis consumer research study, the first of its kind in history. The ongoing study is the most comprehensive and detailed look at cannabis consumers ever conducted.”
Although memory performance decreases with age, marijuana can reverse these aging processes in the brain, according to a study published in the journal Nature Medicine.
“[THC] treatment completely reversed the loss of performance in the old animals,” reported Professor Andreas Zimmer from the Institute of Molecular Psychiatry at the University of Bonn and member of the Cluster of Excellence ImmunoSensation.
Cannabidiol (CBD) has beneficial effects in patients with schizophrenia, according to an exploratory double-blind parallel-group trial study published by the American Journal of Psychiatry.
“These findings suggest that CBD has beneficial effects in patients with schizophrenia”, states the study. “As CBD’s effects do not appear to depend on dopamine receptor antagonism, this agent may represent a new class of treatment for the disorder.”
- Single Dose of CBD Reduces Blood Pressure, Finds Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Study
Just a single dose of cannabidiol (CBD) reduces blood pressure, indicating it may play a role in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, according to a study published by the journal JCI Insight.
“This data shows that acute administration of CBD reduces resting BP and the BP increase to stress in humans, associated with increased HR [heart rate]”, states researchers. “These hemodynamic changes should be considered for people taking CBD. Further research is required to establish whether CBD has a role in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.”
Activation of the body’s cannabinoid receptors through spinal infusion is effective at blocking pain, according to a study published by the journal Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.
Laws legalizing marijuana on the state level aren’t associated with increased traffic fatalities, according to astudy published in the American Journal of Public Health. For the study, researchers at the University of Texas-Austin evaluated crash fatality rates in Colorado and Washington before and after the states legalized cannabis for adult use, and they compared these rates to those of eight control states that had not enacted any significant changes in their marijuana laws.
“We found no significant association between recreational marijuana legalization in Washington and Colorado and subsequent changes in motor vehicle fatality rates in the first three years after recreational marijuana legalization,” the study concludes. Authors also reported no association between adult use marijuana legalization and the total number of non-fatal crashes.
Cannabinoids provide a potential treatment option for disorders associated with traumatic memories, according to a study published in the journal European Neuropsychopharmacology, and e-published ahead of print by the U.S. National Institute of Health.
According to a study being published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JAIDS), and published online by the U.S. National Institute of Health, Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may help prevent the progression from HIV infection to the development of AIDS.
A study published by the journal Addiction Biology “strongly suggest” that cannabidiol (CBD) may be useful in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. For the study, researchers “evaluated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on ethanol reinforcement, motivation and relapse” in mice.” The effects of “CBD (60 mg/kg, i.p.) on blood ethanol concentration, hypothermia and handling-induced convulsions associated to acute ethanol administration were evaluated.”
According to a study published in the Journal of Urban Economics, the forced closure of marijuana dispensaries leads to an increase in crime. For the study, researchers at the University of Southern California examined the impact of dispensary closures on crime rates in Los Angeles. Crime data was analyzed in the days before and after the city ordered hundreds of dispensaries to be closed.
Regular administration of cannabis-based medicines is directly associated with improved speech in patients with Tourette Syndrome, according to a study published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences.
Topical marijuana has the potential to improve pain management associated with wounds, according to a study published in the Journal of Pain Management and e-published ahead of print by the U.S. National Institute of Health.
“Clinically significant analgesia that was associated with reduced opioid utilization was noted in all 3 cases”, claims researchers. “TMC [topical medical cannabis] has the potential to improve pain management in patients suffering from wounds of all classes.”
You can find our list of the top 10 cannabis studies of 2016 by clicking here. You can find our list of the top 10 studies of 2015 by clicking here. For 2014’s list click here, and for 2013’s list click here.
During the November, 2016 election California voters chose to legalize marijuana, including establishing a system of licenses cannabis retail outlets, through the passage of Proposition 64. In just four days, the initiative goes into full effect, with licensed distribution becoming legal on January 1st.
The new law allows outlets with a state-issued license to distribute up to an ounce of cannabis for those 21 and older. Although most marijuana stores won’t be open on January 1st, the California Bureau of Cannabis Control (CBCC) has been issuing temporary licenses to certain businesses, including currently operating dispensaries, allowing them to begin sales at 6am on Monday.
“I know this sounds crazy, but we’re looking forward to Jan. 1,” says Lori Ajax, head of the CCBC. “This is what we’ve been waiting for, what we’ve been training for… It’s time.”
California is one of eight states across the U.S. that has legalized marijuana for recreational purposes, and on Monday they will become the fifth where legal sales are currently taking place, following Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Alaska and Nevada.
The post California: Legal Marijuana Sales Begin in Four Days appeared first on TheJointBlog.
According to Mayo Clinic, pulmonary fibrosis is “a lung disease that occurs when lung tissue becomes damaged and scarred. This thickened, stiff tissue makes it more difficult for your lungs to work properly.” As pulmonary fibrosis worsens, “you become progressively more short of breath.”
The study’s abstract begins by stating that; “Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2 [something done naturally through cannabis consumption] has been shown to have anti-fibrosis function in skin and heart. However, whether activating cannabinoid receptor type 2 inhibits pulmonary fibrosis remains elusive.” In this study, researchers “aimed to investigate the role of cannabinoid receptor type 2 in pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo.”
After conducting their investigation, researchers found the data to indicate that “activating cannabinoid receptor type 2 by a pharmacological method might be a potential strategy for pulmonary fibrosis”.
The full study, conducted by researchers at the Capital Medical University is Bejing, China, can be found by clicking here.
Arturo Tornel, spokesman for health regulator Cofepris, said that the agency plans to formally publish the regulation for pot-based goods within days, allowing those items to enter the Mexico market as soon as a month later, reports Reuters. Tornel notes that Cofepris expects distributors and retailers to import the items, with some companies eventually producing items in Mexico using marijuana grown abroad. The regulation does not apply to sales of pure marijuana.
Supporters of the move expect that it will help to reduce the wealth of drug cartels, which use marijuana as a major source of income.
Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Puerto Rico have also legalized medical marijuana, and in 2013 Uruguay become the first country to allow the commercial cultivation and distribution of cannabis. Canada will be legalizing the plant next year, and in the U.S. eight states have as well.
In 2015 Mexico’s Supreme Court granted four people the right to grow their own marijuana for personal consumption, opening the door to legalization.
The post Mexico to Legalize Marijuana-Based Products in Early 2018 appeared first on TheJointBlog.
The bill extends the Rohrabacher-Blumenauer amendment, initially passed in 2014, to January 19th. The amendment prohibits the Department of Justice – which includes the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) – from using funds to enforce federal cannabis laws in states that have legalized the plant for medical use. Trump signed the bill shortly after it was passed by both the Senate and House of Representatives.
“Patients around the country who rely on medical marijuana for treatment—and the businesses that serve them—now have some measure of certainty”, Representative Blumenauer, co-chair of the Congressional Cannabis Caucus, said after the measure was passed by Congress. “Our fight, however, continues to maintain these important protections in the next funding bill passed by Congress.”
The bill signed into law by Trump also extends protections for state laws that allow hemp to be cultivated for research purposes.
The post President Trump Signs Bill Temporarily Extending Medical Cannabis Protections appeared first on TheJointBlog.
According to the department, the decision “was based on a rigorous review and analysis of written and oral testimony, a public hearing, and peer-reviewed scientific evidence.” Of the 29 states and U.S. jurisdictions that permit medical cannabis, 19 include ALS as a qualifying health condition.
During its review, the department determined “medical cannabis may be appropriate for patients diagnosed with ALS after receiving a comprehensive assessment by a patient’s physician or APRN and a risk-benefit discussion.”
In April 2017, the Department of Health opened the petition process to allow patients, physicians, and advance practice registered nurses (APRNs) to petition the department to add new debilitating medical conditions to the existing list of conditions that could benefit from the use medical cannabis. Soon after, a petition to add ALS was filed.
“Unlike prescription medications that undergo rigorous clinical trials for the treatment of certain health conditions before being released to consumers, medical cannabis does not have that same level of evaluation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration”, states the department. “Under Hawaii Revised Statutes, all new conditions must be thoroughly reviewed from an evidence-based perspective and be subject to a public hearing. This year, the Department of Health received two such requests and began the review process.”
The other condition submitted for consideration was general anxiety disorder (GAD). The Department of Health unfortunately declined this request because “at this time there is inconclusive medical evidence that cannabis has beneficial use in the treatment or alleviation of symptoms of anxiety, social phobia, and social anxiety disorder (SAD), and no evidence specific to GAD.”
Next year’s deadline to request the addition of new health conditions is Feb. 19, 2018. The petition form is available online for patients, physicians, and APRNs and must be submitted by the deadline to be included in the public hearings tentatively scheduled for May 2018. Any petitions received after Feb. 19 may be considered the following year.
The post Hawaii Adds ALS as Qualifying Medical Cannabis Condition appeared first on TheJointBlog.
“The change will take some time, but that means a changed vision: those who have a substance abuse problem should be treated as ill, and not as criminals with classical sanctions such as fines and imprisonment”, said Sveinung Stensland, deputy chairman of the Storting Health Committee, following the vote.
Nicolas Wilkinson, the SV party’s health spokesman, told VG that parliament’s goal was to “stop punishing people who struggle, but instead give them help and treatment”. He says aim is to transfer responsibility for drug policy from the justice system to the health system.
The move follows a 2006 scheme drug that was intended to replace custodial sentences with treatment programs for drug addicts in the cities of Bergen and Oslo. Last year the scheme was rolled out to all Norwegian courts.
“Research in both animals and humans indicates that cannabidiol (CBD) has antipsychotic properties”, begins the study’s abstract. “The authors assessed the safety and effectiveness of CBD in patients with schizophrenia.”
In an exploratory double-blind parallel-group trial, patients with schizophrenia were “randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive CBD (1000 mg/day; N=43) or placebo (N=45) alongside their existing antipsychotic medication.” Participants were “assessed before and after treatment using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), and the improvement and severity scales of the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI-I and CGI-S).”
After 6 weeks of treatment, compared with the placebo group, “the CBD group had lower levels of positive psychotic symptoms (PANSS: treatment difference=-1.4, 95% CI=-2.5, -0.2) and were more likely to have been rated as improved (CGI-I: treatment difference=-0.5, 95% CI=-0.8, -0.1) and as not severely unwell (CGI-S: treatment difference=-0.3, 95% CI=-0.5, 0.0) by the treating clinician.” Patients who received CBD “also showed greater improvements that fell short of statistical significance in cognitive performance (BACS: treatment difference=1.31, 95% CI=-0.10, 2.72) and in overall functioning (GAF: treatment difference=3.0, 95% CI=-0.4, 6.4). CBD was well tolerated, and rates of adverse events were similar between the CBD and placebo groups.”
The study concludes by stating that; “These findings suggest that CBD has beneficial effects in patients with schizophrenia. As CBD’s effects do not appear to depend on dopamine receptor antagonism, this agent may represent a new class of treatment for the disorder.”
The full study, published online by the U.S. National Institute of Health, can be found by clicking here.
The post Study Finds CBD has Beneficial Effects in Patients with Schizophrenia appeared first on TheJointBlog.
Proponents of the initiative must now collect around 13,500 signatures from registered North Dakota voters in order to put it to a vote of the people during the November, 2018 general election. The proposal would legalize the possession, personal cultivation and licensed distribution of recreational marijuana for everyone who is at least 21 years old.
The measure would also seal the records of anyone who’s been convicted of a marijuana-related crime that would be made legal under the initiative.
If advocates of the measure are successful in placing it on the ballot, and voters approve it, North Dakota would become the ninth state to legalize cannabis.
The post North Dakota Initiative to Legalize Marijuana Approved for Circulation by Secretary of State appeared first on TheJointBlog.
The legislation, titled the Misuse of Drugs (Decriminalization of Cannabis) Amendment Act and tabled by Minister of Social Development and Sport Zane DeSilva, will decriminalize the possession of up to seven grams of cannabis for personal use. Given the measure has been approved by Bermuda’s full Congress, it now goes to Governor John Rankin for consideration. Rankin is expected to sign the measure into law.
Under the proposed law cannabis possession up to seven grams would no longer be a criminal offense, though police would still have the authority to seize any cannabis found on a person. Charges could also still be applied if it’s determined that the cannabis was intended to be distributed, rather than consumed for personal use. The minister will also be tasked with determining regulations for substance abuse education or treatment for those caught possessing cannabis.
According to a Profiles of Bermuda poll released in 2015, 79% of voters in Bermuda support either decriminalizing or legalizing cannabis.
The post Bermuda Senate Approves Legislation to Decriminalize Cannabis, Sending it to Governor appeared first on TheJointBlog.
“This is a great Christmas present,” said California NORML director Dale Gieringer. “Licensing is an inevitable necessity of the modern bureaucratic state. I’m just happy to see the stores open and people be able to walk into a store — any adult including tourists and guests in California — and get cannabis just like they can get alcohol, cigarettes or all sorts of wonderful things in California.”
Altogether 20 licenses were issued to cannabis businesses located throughout the state, including multiple located in San Diego, Lynwood and San Jose. The most – seven in total – are located in Santa Cruz.
Below is a list of the 20 licenses issued yesterday (list provided by GreenState.com):
Legal Business Name Record Type Status Pure CA, LLC Adult-Use – Distributor Temporary License Active LYNWOOD CA 90262 Pure CA, LLC Medicinal – Distributor Temporary License Active LYNWOOD CA 90262 Buddy’s Cannabis Medicinal – Microbusiness Temporary License Active 1075 10TH ST N, BLDG, SAN JOSE CA 95112 HERBL Distribution Solutions Medicinal – Distributor Temporary License Active SANTA ROSA CA 95403 Buddy’s Cannabis Adult-Use – Microbusiness Temporary License Active 1075 10TH ST N, BLDG, SAN JOSE CA 95112 Golden State Sciences Medicinal – Distributor Temporary License Active KING CITY CA 93930 Yes Cannabis – Laboratory Testing Temporary License Active 181 HUNTINGTON DR W, SUITE 106, MONROVIA CA 91016 Torrey Holistics Medicinal – Retailer Temporary License Active 10671 ROSELLE ST, SUITE 100, SAN DIEGO CA 92121 KindPeoples (formerly KindPeoples Collective) Medicinal – Distributor Temporary License Active SANTA CRUZ CA 95060 KindPeoples (formerly KindPeoples Collective) Adult-Use – Distributor Temporary License Active SANTA CRUZ CA 95060 Torrey Holistics Adult-Use – Retailer Temporary License Active 10671 ROSELLE ST, SUITE 100, SAN DIEGO CA 92121 KindPeoples Medicinal – Retailer Temporary License Active 140 DUBOIS ST, SUITE C, SANTA CRUZ CA 95060 KindPeoples Adult-Use – Retailer Temporary License Active 140 DUBOIS ST, SUITE C, SANTA CRUZ CA 95060 KindPeoples (formerly KindPeoples Collective) Medicinal – Microbusiness Temporary License Active 140 Dubois ST, SUITE A, B, C, Santa Cruz CA 95060 KindPeoples (formerly KindPeoples Collective) Adult-Use – Retailer Temporary License Active 3600 SOQUEL AVE, SANTA CRUZ CA 95062 Hueneme Patient Consumer Coop Medicinal – Retailer Temporary License Active 501 CHANNEL ISLANDS BLVD W, SUITE 302, PORT HUENEME CA 93041 530 CANNABIS Adult-Use – Retailer Temporary License Active 1550 LOCUST AVE, SHASTA LAKE CA 96019 530 CANNABIS Medicinal – Retailer Temporary License Active 1550 LOCUST AVE, SHASTA LAKE CA 96019 KindPeoples (formerly KindPeoples Collective) Adult-Use – Microbusiness Temporary License Active 140 DUBOIS ST, SUITE A, B, C, SANTA CRUZ CA 95060 KindPeoples (formerly KindPeoples Collective) Medicinal – Retailer Temporary License Active
The post First Recreational Marijuana Business Licenses Issued in California appeared first on TheJointBlog.
“There is increased interest from Member States in the use of cannabis for medical indications including for palliative care”, states the WHO report released yesterday. “Responding to that interest and increase in use, WHO has in recent years gathered more robust scientific evidence on therapeutic use and side effects of cannabis and cannabis components. To that end, the ECDD [Expert Committee on Drug Dependence] did an initial review of a cannabis compound called cannabidiol (CBD).”
The report claims that “Recent evidence from animal and human studies shows that its use could have some therapeutic value for seizures due to epilepsy and related conditions. The ECDD therefore “concluded that current information does not justify scheduling of cannabidiol”.
The committee “postponed a fuller review of cannabidiol preparations to May 2018, when the committee will undertake a comprehensive review of cannabis and cannabis related substances.”
The post World Health Organization Says CBD Shouldn’t be a Controlled Substance appeared first on TheJointBlog.
The Misuse of Drugs (Decriminalization of Cannabis) Amendment Act, tabled by Minister of Social Development and Sport Zane DeSilva, would decriminalize the possession of up to seven grams of cannabis for personal use. The measure now goes to the Senate for consideration. Passage in the Senate would send it to Governor John Rankin who could sign it into law, allow it to become law without his signature, or veto it.
Although police would no longer be able to arrest individuals with up to seven grams of cannabis under the proposed law, they could still seize it. The minister would also be tasked with drawing up regulations for substance abuse education or treatment for those caught possessing cannabis.
According to a Profiles of Bermuda poll released in 2015, 79% of voters in Bermuda support either decriminalizing or legalizing cannabis.
The post Bermuda House Passes Bill to Decriminalize Cannabis Possession appeared first on TheJointBlog.
“It’s believed that cognitive function decreases in many of those with HIV partly due to chronic inflammation that occurs in the brain,” says Norbert Kaminski, lead author of the study which was conducted at Michigan State University. “This happens because the immune system is constantly being stimulated to fight off disease.”
According to Science Daily, Kaminski and his co-author, Mike Rizzo, a graduate student in toxicology, discovered that the compounds in marijuana were able to act as anti-inflammatory agents, reducing the number of inflammatory white blood cells, called monocytes, and decreasing the proteins they release in the body.
“This decrease of cells could slow down, or maybe even stop, the inflammatory process, potentially helping patients maintain their cognitive function longer,” Rizzo said.
The two researchers took blood samples from 40 HIV patients who reported whether or not they used marijuana. Then, they isolated the white blood cells from each donor and studied inflammatory cell levels and the effect marijuana had on the cells.
“The patients who didn’t smoke marijuana had a very high level of inflammatory cells compared to those who did use,” Kaminski said. “In fact, those who used marijuana had levels pretty close to a healthy person not infected with HIV.”
Kaminski, director of MSU’s Institute for Integrative Toxicology, has studied the effects of marijuana on the immune system since 1990. His lab was the first to identify the proteins that can bind marijuana compounds on the surface of immune cells. Up until then, it was unclear how these compounds, also known as cannabinoids, affected the immune system.
HIV, which stands for human immunodeficiency virus, infects and can destroy or change the functions of immune cells that defend the body. With antiretroviral therapy — a standard form of treatment that includes a cocktail of drugs to ward off the virus — these cells have a better chance of staying intact.
Yet, even with this therapy, certain white blood cells can still be overly stimulated and eventually become inflammatory.
“We’ll continue investigating these cells and how they interact and cause inflammation specifically in the brain,” Rizzo said. “What we learn from this could also have implications to other brain-related diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s since the same inflammatory cells have been found to be involved.”
Knowing more about this interaction could ultimately lead to new therapeutic agents that could help HIV patients specifically maintain their mental function.
“It might not be people smoking marijuana,” Kaminski said. “It might be people taking a pill that has some of the key compounds found in the marijuana plant that could help.”
The full study and its abstract can be found by clicking here.
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This year marked the first time since the 1930s that farmers in Pennsylvania could legally grow hemp, thanks to legislation approved by state lawmakers in 2016. Although less than 50 acres were permitted for hemp cultivation in 2017, State Agriculture Secretary Russell Redding says the agency plans to increase this 100-fold in 2018, to around 5,000 acres. Redding believes the crop could increase the productivity of existing farmland.
“Research … at Penn State (showed) that you can actually use industrial hemp as a double crop, behind wheat”, said Redding. “I think if that plays out to be real, that is a game changer. You immediately change what options farmers have and you open up new markets.”
Individual growers or higher education institutions can apply for permits to grow the crop, with applications for next year due by January 19th.
The post Pennsylvania: Permitted Hemp Crops to Grow From 50 to 5,000 Acres in 2018 appeared first on TheJointBlog.
According to this data – dubbed the Marijuana Sales Report – there has been over $4 billion in marijuana and marijuana products sold since legal recreational sales began in 2014. The data shows that this year (up to the end of October) there has been $1,259,861,988 in marijuana sold, just shy of the $1,307,203,473 sold in 2016. In 2015, there was just shy of $1 billion sold ($995,591,255), and in 2014, the first year of legal sales, there was $683,523,739 sold. For comparison, there has been $2,951,855,447.08 in legal marijuana sold in Washington State, though sales there began in July of 2014, not January like Colorado.
According to the CDOR; “The Marijuana Sales Reports show unaudited monthly sales as self-reported by businesses on State sales returns and do not use Metrc® data (the Marijuana Enforcement Division’s Marijuana Inventory Tracking System). The Marijuana Tax Data reports show tax revenue collected monthly as posted in the State’s accounting system.”
Below is a marijuana sales chart provided by the CDOR:
The post Over $4 Billion in Marijuana Sold in Colorado Since Start of Legal Sales appeared first on TheJointBlog.
Advocates of the Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Amendment are attempting to put their measure to a vote of the people during the November, 2018 general election. The initiative, described by supporters as a “free market” approach, would allow anyone 21 and older to possess and use marijuana and hemp, while establishing a system of licensed retail outlets and cultivation centers. Home cultivation for personal use would also be allowed.
“If you can own a bar, or make beer, wine or spirits, you will be able to own a marijuana dispensary, processor or cultivation,” says initiative supporters, who need to collect 305,592 signatures from registered voters in order to place the issue on next year’s ballot.
Although those behind the initiative are the same as those behind a failed 2015 initiative to legalize marijuana, supporters say the measure is quite different, and was developed after months of research and discussion.
An overview of the initiative – uploaded to Scribd by marijuana journalist Tom Angell – can be found by clicking here.
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